The development of type 2 diabetes is in 70% of cases linked to food, which is therefore a risk factor, according to a new study.
- Diet is an increasingly important risk factor in the onset of type 2 diabetes.
- The researchers point to a change in eating habits, with over or under consumption of certain foods which would be harmful.
- Not all geographical areas are affected in the same way by this phenomenon.
90% of diabetics have type 2 diabetes, according to theNational Institute of Health and Medical Research (Inserm). This usually develops after the age of 20 and is caused by the body’s cells not using insulin properly, according to health insurance. On the other hand, type 1 diabetes is due to an absence of insulin secretion by the pancreas and is generally present from childhood or adolescence. But whether it is one or the other, this disease characterized by too high blood sugar levels, hyperglycemia.
Diet, a risk factor for type 2 diabetes
“The risk of occurrence of type 2 diabetes exists if the patient has a genetic predisposition, i.e. a close relative (father, mother, brother or sister) [qui] has or has had type 2 diabetescan we read on the site of health insurance. But the family (or genetic) factor is not enough. It must be associated with other causes related to the environment with, in the 1st rank: diet and sedentary lifestyle. Tobacco is also an associated risk factor.”
Researchers therefore wanted to understand the precise influence of diet on the development of this disease. Their work has been published in the journal naturemedicine. To do this, they analyzed the consumption, between 1990 and 2018, of 11 food groups, in 184 countries. In detail, it was about the fruits, non-starchy vegetables, potatoes, seeds and nuts, refined rice and wheat, whole grains, processed meat, unprocessed red meat, yogurt, sugary drinks and fruit juices .
Results : researchers estimate that 70% of new cases of type 2 diabetes, which represents about 14 million people, are due to poor diet, ie overconsumption or underconsumption of certain food groups. In addition, between 1990 and 2018, diet-related type 2 diabetes cases increased by 2.6 points, or 8.6 million additional cases.
Over or under consumption of certain foods increases the risk of diabetes
Over the period studied, i.e. 28 years, the consumption of red meat and sugary drinks has increased to now exceed the recommended daily intake. This overconsumption increases, according to scientists, the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. At the same time, the population also eats more fruits, vegetables and whole grains, but in proportions lower than those recommended by health authorities. The under-consumption of refined grains is particularly singled out by researchers as being a risk factor for type 2 diabetes.
The scientists note that across the 184 countries studied, some are more affected than others. Those in Europe and Central Asia, where populations eat a lot of potatoes and meat, are at higher – and very – risk of developing type 2 diabetes because of diet. This is also the case in sub-Saharan Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean.